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  • What is Cannabigerol (CBG)?

    What is Cannabigerol (CBG)

    Thanks to new research, researchers have found more than 100 cannabinoids in cannabis, each with its own unique effects. CBG, or cannabigerol, is just one of these cannabinoids and has tremendous medical potential in the treatment of pain and nausea through to Huntington's disease and multiple sclerosis.

    Cannabigerol, commonly known as CBG, is a phytocannabinoid found in the hemp plant. It is non-psychoactive, as preliminary studies showed it did not produce intoxicating THC-like effects in mice and rats.
    CBG was first discovered in 1964 as a component of hashish. It is made from cannabigerolic acid or CBGA, which is actually one of the first cannabinoids in the cannabis plant.
    As a plant matures, enzymes in the plant convert CBGA into a variety of other acid cannabinoids, including THCA, CBDA and CBCA. By drying, curing and heating, most of these cannabinoids develop into non-acidic versions such as THC, CBD and CBC.
    It is believed that CBG is a mild antagonist of the CB1 receptor of the endocannabinoid system. This means that it can inhibit the effects of CB1 agonists, especially THC, and thus interfere with the effects of other cannabinoids. It is believed that CBG interacts with CB2 receptors, but it is not entirely clear whether it exerts agonistic or antagonistic effects on this class of receptors.
    Research into the medicinal qualities of cannabis is still in its infancy. In recent years, however, a considerable amount of research has been conducted on CBG, suggesting that cannabinoid has a variety of medicinal benefits.
    CBG has tremendous potential for the treatment of a variety of cancers.
    A 2014 study by a variety of researchers from Italy showed that CBG interacts with specific targets involved in carcinogenesis and effectively inhibits the growth of colorectal cancer.
    The researchers studied the growth of cancer cells using an in vivo model with colon cancer mice. By closely monitoring the growth of cancer cells in mice that underwent CBG treatment, researchers found that CBG could inhibit the growth of tumors. It does this by acting as an antagonist of a specific gene (known as TRPM8) and activating a variety of others (including TRPA1, TRPV1 and TRPV2).
    Another study, published in 1996, found CBG had similar effects on melanoma. It turned out that CBG significantly reduced the growth of melanoma cells in mouse skin. Another study by the same authors, conducted in 1998, compared the anti-cancer effects of CBG with a variety of other substances, including geraniol, olivetol, and more. The study found that CBG had the highest growth-inhibitory activity against cancer cells among all substances tested.
    Finally, an article published in the British Journal of Pharmacology in 2011 examining the medicinal qualities of cannabinoids other than THC goes into great detail about the anti-cancer properties of CBG and cites several references that the cannabinoid inhibits tumor formation and growth found in the chest, prostate and other cancers.
    In 2015, researchers from the Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology at the Complutense University in Madrid, Spain, found that CBG has unique neuroprotective properties. The researchers used 2 different in vivo models of Huntington's disease in mice, which is characterized by a progressive degradation of nerve cells in the brain.
    The study found that CBG is very active as a neuroprotector, improving motor deficits while conserving neurons. The study also showed that CBG could positively influence the expression of some genes related to Huntington's disease.
    Another study, published in the Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology in 2012, examined CBG and its effect on multiple sclerosis.
    The study, conducted by researchers from Vivacell Biotechnology España, found that cannabigerol is a potent antiphlogistic and neuroprotective agent. Using an in vivo model, the researchers found that CBG helped mediate the symptoms of MS while modulating the expression of key genes involved in the disease.
    Both studies conclude that CBG, both alone and in combination with other cannabinoids / treatments, is promising for the development of drugs and treatments for both HD and multiple sclerosis.
    CBG and pain relief
    CBG, like other cannabinoids such as THC and CBD, show a promising effect in relieving neuropathic pain.
    A 2011 patent from Otsuka Pharmaceutical and GW Pharma claims that cannabigerol and other cannabinoids (such as CBC, CBDV and THCV) help to alleviate the symptoms of neuropathic pain in mice. Research by the two pharmaceutical giants shows that CBG helped mice to recover from pain caused by surgically induced nerve damage.
    As neuropathic pain is generally unresponsive to treatment with opiates and other medicines, this is a major advance in the treatment of this type of pain. It is also important to note that the above-mentioned studies found that CBG in the test mice was able to relieve most effectively neuropathic pain at low doses.
    Apart from the studies mentioned above, there are many more indications of the medical benefits of CBG.
    For example, a 2009 study found that CBG reduced intraocular pressure in cats with glaucoma. Rat-based studies also suggest that CBG can help treat nausea and vomiting, although this research has not yet been replicated in humans. Finally, CBG has also shown anti-inflammatory effects that can help treat and treat inflammatory bowel disease.
    Unfortunately, most hemp is harvested for THC or CBD. This means that it is actually harvested rather late in its flowering cycle and subsequently contains low levels of CBG. Most hemp on the market today contains only about 1% of these cannabinoids.
    Studies on cannabinoid variations in cannabis suggest that Indian Landrace strains may contain higher levels of CBG than other varieties. Breeders are also advised to harvest their crops for about three quarters of the harvest cycle for a higher CBG content.
    In 2013, researchers from Dortmund Technical University analyzed the cannabinoid content of Bediol, a medical strain of Bedrocan BV in the Netherlands. The researchers bred the strain for a total of 8 weeks and analyzed the cannabinoids in the plants each week. The CBG content was highest in week 6.
    CBG: A new medical power plant?
    It's pretty obvious that Cannabigerol has shown tremendous medical potential. The fact that it is a non-psychoactive compound is particularly promising as many people may be deterred by the intoxicating effects of THC and other psychotropic cannabinoids.
    However, it is important to remember that this scientific research has its limits. And while this article summarizes a wealth of research into CBG and its medicinal benefits, we only scratch the surface when it comes to understanding this powerful cannabinoid.